Jerusalem was subjugated by the Christian First Crusade in 1099s, after it had been under Muslim rule for 450 years. It became the capital of the Christian Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, until it was conquered again by the Ayyubids in 1187. For the next forty years, a series of Christian campaigns (the Third, Fourth and Fifth Crusades) tried in vain to retake the city, until Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor who led the Sixth Crusade negotiated its return in 1229s successfully.
By the way, what is the reason that Jerusalem was significant to European Christians? The answer is Jerusalem was significant to European Christians as it was the place where Jesus was crucified.
Here we have some questions and answers related to impact of the Crusades:
- What was an effect of the Crusades on the Muslim world?
The answer: Crusades increased Muslims’ distrust of Europeans.
- Which event took place during the Fourth Crusade?
The answer: The Crusaders attacked Constantinople.
- After the Fourth Crusade, support among Europeans for the Crusades
The answer: started to decline.
- What compromise ended the Third Crusade?
The answer: Muslims continued to rule Jerusalem, however they allowed Christian pilgrims free access to the city.
- The Crusaders considered the journey to Jerusalem to be a kind of pilgrimage because participants would.
The answer: obtain forgiveness for their sins.
- Feudalism declined during the Crusades because
The answer: lots of knights lost their lives and fortunes in battle.
- After the fall of the Roman Empire, who took the lead in providing services to people throughout Europe?
The answer: the Roman Catholic Church
- How did the spread of Muslim rule most effect European leaders?
The answer: they were threatened by it
- Which of these events resulted in further Crusades one hundred years after the First Crusade?
The answer: In 1187, Muslim forces retook the city of Jerusalem.
HISTORY OF JERUSALEM DURING THE KINGDOM OF JERUSALEM
In 1244s, the city was taken by Khwarazmian troops. After the 1260s the Ayyubid realm including Jerusalem was taken over by the Mamluks of Egypt and gradually the city was rebuilt during the 13th century, while the shrinking coastal Crusader state was defeated until its final demise in 1291 gradually.
The Crusaders subjugated the city of Jerusalem in 1099s as well held it until its conquest by the army of Saladin in 1187 and its surrender to the Ayyubid dynasty, a Muslim sultanate that ruled in the Middle East in the early 12th century. The conflict of Crusader Ayyubid finally ended with the rise of the Mamluks from Egypt in the 1260s. Then, their conquest of the Holy Land. Period of Ayyubid ended with the waves of destruction of the city. Firstly, its fortifications were destroyed. Later most of the buildings as part of a deliberate scorched earth policy intended to prevent all future crusades from obtaining a foothold in the city and region. This was a short period, but turbulent and significant in the history of Jerusalem. For the first time, as the destruction of the city in 70 CE, Jerusalem was the capital of a separate political entity, a status only regained during the British Mandate in the 20th century.
Period of the Crusader in the history of Jerusalem resoundingly influenced the history of the whole Middle East. The Crusades elevated the position of Jerusalem in the hierarchy of places holy to Islam, however it did not become a spiritual or political center of Islam. Based on the history, in the end of the period of Ayyubid, the name of Jerusalem was no longer connected to the idea of jihad. Also, the city’s geopolitical status declined, becoming a secondary city, first for the Mamluk Empire, and later for the Ottomans.
WHY WAS JERUSALEM SO IMPORTANT IN THE CRUSADES?
You have to know that the Crusades are one of the most significant events in the history of Europe and the Middle East. They were the religious wars that were carried out by Christian crusaders from Europe. Beginning in 1095 CE, the crusades saw European knights and noblemen travel to the Middle East in an attempt to capture the Holy Land away from Muslim people that had controlled the region for the previous centuries. The term crusade means ‘cross’. So, the Europeans that became crusaders viewed themselves as ‘taking up the cross’. In fact, lots of the crusaders wore crosses on their clothing and armor as they made their pilgrimage to the Holy Land in order to conquer Jerusalem.
The city of Jerusalem was centrally located in the Holy Land between the Mediterranean Sea and the Dead Sea. While the history of the city itself goes back much further. It was a significant site in the crusades because of the importance it holds in the three main religions of the region: Christianity, Judaism and Islam. For Christians, Jerusalem was the site of Jesus Christ’s crucifixion and resurrection. Therefore, the city was really important to their understanding of the teachings and history of Jesus. For Muslims, the city of Jerusalem was the land guaranteed by Abraham and the place where the prophet Muhammed ascended into heaven to meet Allah (God). For Jewish people Jerusalem was really important because it was the land guaranteed to them by Abraham. All three religions had and still have important religious sites in the city including the churches, temples, mosques and synagogues. As a result, all three religions wanted access to the city which led to clashes and disagreements over time.
CRUSADER CONQUEST OF JERUSALEM
Jerusalem conquest became the prime objective of the First Crusade, which was launched in 1095 with Pope Urban II to arms. Four primary crusader armies left Europe in August 1096s. On June 7, 1099, after giving up on the unsuccessful siege of Arqa, the crusaders arrived at Jerusalem. Later, the city of Jerusalem was surrounded by the army on July 13. Attacks on the city walls began on July 14, with a large battering ram and two siege towers. On July 15, the Crusaders were on the northern wall and the Muslim defenses collapsed.