Ionic Bonding Gizmo Answer Key

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Prior Knowledge Questions:

  1. Nate and Clara are drawing pictures with markers. There are 8 markers in a set. Nate has 9 markers and Clara has 7. What can Nate and Clara do so that each of them has a full set?
    Nate can give Clara 1 marker, so they each have a full set.
  2. Maggie is sitting at a table with Fred and Florence. Maggie has 10 markers, but Fred and Florence each have only 7 markers. How can they share markers so each has 8?
    Maggie has to give away 2 markers to Fred and Florence so each has 8.

Gizmo Warm-up:

To begin, check that Sodium (Na) and Chlorine (Cl) are selected from the menus at right. Click Play ( ) to see electrons orbiting the nucleus of each atom. (Note: These atom models are simplified and not meant to be realistic.)

  1. Each atom consists of a central nucleus and several shells that contain electrons. The outermost electrons are called valence electrons (Inner electrons are not shown.). How many valence electrons does each atom have? Sodium: 1            Chlorine: 7
  2. Click Pause. Elements can be classified as metals and nonmetals. Metals do not hold on to their valence electrons very tightly, while nonmetals hold their electrons tightly. Electron affinity is a measure of how tightly the valence electrons are held.
    A. Try pulling an electron away from each atom. Based on this experiment, which atom is a metal? Sodium Which is a nonmetal? Chlorine
    B. Try moving an electron from the metal to the nonmetal. What happens? Sodium becomes a cation, and chlorine becomes an onion.

Activity A: Ions

Question: What happens when atoms gain or lose electrons?

  1. Count: Electrons move around the nucleus of atoms in specific shells, shown by the rings around the atoms in the Gizmo. The first ring holds two electrons, and the second holds eight. (Electrons in the inner rings are not shown; you can assume these things are full)
    A. Observe the sodium and chlorine atoms. Assuming that the inner rings are full of electrons, how many electrons are there total in each atom?
    Sodium: 11 electrons                      Chlorine: 17 electrons
    B. Each atom is neutrally charged, which means that each atom has the same number as protons and electrons. Based on this, how many protons are in each atom?
    Sodium: 11 protons                         Chlorine: 17 protons
  2. Observe: Most atoms are stable with a configuration of eight valence electrons. This is known as the octet rule. How many valence electrons does each atom have?
    Sodium: 1 valence electron                          Chlorine: 7 valence electrons
  3. Form a bond: Each electron has a charge of 1-, and each proton has a charge of 1+. You can calculate the charge of an atom by subtracting the number of electrons from the number of protons. Move an electron from the sodium to the chlorine atom.
    A. What are the charges of each atom now? Sodium: +1                       Chlorine: -1
    Turn on Show charge to check. These charges atoms are called ions.
    B. Is each ion stable? Explain.
    Yes, each ion is stable. Chlorine only has 7 valence electrons, so gaining 1 more would lead to a stable full octet. Sodium on the other hand has 1 valence electron, by losing this electron it has just a regular shell of 8 electrons, also becoming a stable octet.
    Click Check in the lower right corner of the Gizmo to check.
  4. Think and discuss: Why is there an attraction between the two ions in this chemical bond?
    There is an attraction between these two ions in this chemical bond due to the fact that there is a positively charged atom (cation) and a negatively charged atom (anion). Opposite forces attract (+, -) and same forces repel (+ + and – – ).

Activity B: Ionic compounds

Question: How are ionic compounds formed?

  1. Observe: Look at the red lithium atom and the blue oxygen atom. Recall that most atoms are stable when their outermost ring has eight elections. (Some atoms, such as lithium and beryllium, are stable when their outermost ring has two electrons.)
    A. How many electrons will the lithium atom give up to become stable? 1 electron
    B. How many electrons does the oxygen atom need to become stable? 2 electrons
    C. Can a stable compound be made from these two atoms? Explain why or why not.
    A stable compound cannot be made from these two atoms. Oxygen needs 2 electrons to have a stable octet, and be happy. Though Lithium cannot give up 2 electrons without being unhappy due to the fact that it would not have a stable octet.
  2. Form bonds: Click Add metal to add another lithium atom, and then transfer electrons from the lithium to the oxygen. Click Check.
    A. Did you make a stable compound? Yes.
    B. Turn on Show formula. What is the formula of this compound? Li2O.
    C. Turn on Show charge. What is the charge of each ion? Li: +2           Li: -2      O: +1
  3. Practice: Use the Gizmo to create stable compounds from the combinations given below. After transferring electrons, arrange the atoms to demonstrate the attraction between positively charged ions and negatively charged ions. Click Check to check each compound.

For each compound, click the camera ( ) icon to take a snapshot. Right-click the image, and click Copy Image. Paste each image into a blank document to turn in with this worksheet. Write the ionic charges (such as Ca2+) and chemical formulas below.

Ionic charges Chemical formula
A.     Lithium and fluorine Li: +1 F: -1 LiF
B.     Beryllium and oxygen Be: +2 O: -2 BeO
C.     Magnesium and fluorine Mg: +2 F: -1 MgF2
D.     Aluminum and chlorine Al: +3 Cl: -1 AlCl3
E.      Beryllium and nitrogen Be: +2 N: -3 Be2N2

Extension: Chemical families

Question:

  1. Observe: Drag the nonmetal into the trash so there is only the one lithium atom visible.
    A. How many valence electrons does lithium have? 1
    B. Now look at your periodic table. Find lithium (Li) in the first column. Other than lithium, which element from the Gizmo is also in this column? Sodium
    C. Choose this element. How many valence electrons does this element have? 1
  2. Gather data: Four other pairs of elements in the same chemical family are listed below. List the number of valence electrons in each element.
    Beryllium: 2                        Nitrogen: 5                        Oxygen:                           Fluorine: 7
    Magnesium: 2                   Phosphorus: 5                   Sulfur: 6                              Chlorine: 7
  3. Analyze: What pattern do you see?
    The pattern I observe is that elements in the same family have the same amount of valence electrons.
  4. Make a rule: Based on your data, how are elements arranged into chemical families?
    Elements are arranged into chemical families based on the number of valence electrons they each have.
  5. Infer: Look at your periodic table. How many valence electrons would you find for elements in each family?
    Boron family: 3                 Carbon family: 4                              Neon family: 8
  6. Think and discuss: How do you think the number of valence electrons relates to an element’s chemical properties?
    The number of valence electrons relates to an element’s chemical properties in such a way for chemical bonds to be formed. In an ionic bond, metals are more likely to give up their valence electron, and nonmetals are more likely to gain/receive valence electrons.

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