Fluid and Electrolyte Cheat Sheet

Posted on

A cheat sheet is a document that contains all of the key information which is likely to be on a test. In several courses, a professor will let you bring a cheat sheet to a test to reduce the need for memorization. Even if you cannot use the cheat sheet on a test, the preparation of a cheat sheet is a great method to prepare for a test. Talking about a cheat sheet, well here we are going to inform you about the Fluid and Electrolyte Cheat Sheet.

Fluid and Electrolyte Cheat Sheet

Here is Fluid and Electrolyte Cheat Sheet that we can get from the official site of StuDocu:

Electrolyte Function HYPER “HIGH” Hypo “low”
Potassium 3.0 – 3.5 P – Potassium

P – Priority! Since it…

P – Pumps the heart & muscles

HYPERkalemia (over 3.5) Heart – TIGHT & CONTRACTED

1ST elevation and Peaked T waves

2 Severe = Vfib or Cardiac Standstill

3 Hypotension, Bradycardia GI TRACT – TIGHT and  CONTRACTED

1 Diarrhea

2 Hyperactive bowel sounds NEUROMUSCULAR- TIGHT and  CONTRACTED

Paralysis in Extremities Increased DTR Profound Muscle Weakness, (General Feeling of heaviness)

 Hypokalemia (below 3.0) HEART – LOW & SLOW

1 Flat T waves, ST depression, & prominent U wave MUSCULAR – LOW & SLOW

1 Decreased DTR

2 Muscle cramping

3 Flaccid paralysis (paralyzed limbs)

 

GI – LOW & SLOW Decreased motility, hypoactive to absent bowel sounds, Constipation Abdominal distention Paralytic ileus, paralyzed intestines! for SB0 (small bowel obstruction)

Sodium 135 – 145 S – Sodium

S – Swells the body to maintain:

• Blood pressure

• Blood Volume

• pH balance

HYPERnatremia (over 145)

HYPERNATREMIA = BIG and BLOATED

1.      SKIN

FLUSH ‘’Red & Rosy’’

EDEMA ‘’waterbed skin’’ LOW GRADE FEVER

2.      POLYDIPSIA EXCESS THIRST

3.      LATE SERIOUS SIGNS SWOLLEN dry tongue NCLEXTIP

GI = nausea & vomiting NCLEXTIP

INCREASED muscle tone NCLEXTIP

Hyponatremia (below 135) HYPONATREMIA – DEPRESSED and DEFLATED

NEURO = Seizures & Coma

HEART = Tachycardia, & weak thready pulses

RESPIRATORY ARREST

Chloride 97 – 107 Sodium’s side kick Maintains:

• Blood pressure

• Blood Volume

• pH balance

HYPERchloremia (over 107) NEARLY SAME AS HIGH SODIUM

1.      NAUSEA and VOMITING

2.      SWOLLEN DRY TONGUE

3.      CONFUSION

Hypochloremia (below 97) NEARLY SAME AS LOW SODIUM

1.      EXCESSIVE DIARRHEA,VOMITING, SWEATING

2.      FEVER TEST TIP: ONLY DIFFERENCE

Magnesium1.3 – 2.1 M – Magnesium

M – Mellows the M – Muscles (relaxes)

HYPERmagnesemia (over 2.1)

1. CARDIAC – CALM and QUIET Heart block Prolonged PR intervals VITALS = bradycardia, Hypotension

2. DEEP TENDON REFLEXES – CALM and QUIET Hyporeflexia – Decreased DTR

3. LUNGS – CALM and QUIET Depressed Shallow respirations

4. GI – CALM and QUIETHypoactive bowel sounds

Hypomagnesemia (below 1.3)

1.      CARDIAC – BUCK WILD!

EKG: ST depression, T wave inversion Torsades de pointes SEVERE = V fib

VITALS= Tachycardia

2. DEEP TENDON REFLEXES – BUCK WILD! Hyporeflexia – increased DTR

3. EYES – BUCK WILD! Abnormal eye movements (nystagmus)

4. GI – BUCK WILD! Diarrhea

Calcium 9.0 – 10.5 Keeps the 3 B’s Strong

B – Bone

B – Blood

B – Beats (heart)

HYPERcalcemia (over 10.5)

SWOLLEN and SLOW – MOANS,GROANS and  STONES

1. CONSTIPATION

2.BONE PAIN

3.STONES Renal Calculi (kidney stones)

4. DEEP TENDON REFLEXES Decreased DTR Severe muscle weakness

Hypocalcemia (below 9.0)T

1.      Trousseau’s

T – Twerking arm with BP cuff on

2.      C – Chvostek’s

C – Cheek smile when touched

3.      Diarrhea

4.      Circumoral tingling

5.      Weak bones

Phosphate 3.0 – 4.5 Helps with bone & teeth formation. Helps regulate calcium Ca HIGH = Phosphate LOWCa LOW = Phosphate HIGH HYPERphosphatemia (over 4.5)

‘’LOW CALCIUM’’ BAJA CA+

1. TROUSSEAU’S SIGNS

2. CHVOSTEK’S SIGNS

3. DIARRHEA

4. WEAK B’sStrong bones? WEAK! (fractures) Strong blood clotting? WEAK! (risk for bleeding) Strong heart beats? WEAK! (cardiac dysrhymias

Hypophosphatemia (below 3.0)

Swollen and SLOW – MOAN,GROANS & STONES

1. CONSTIPATION

2. DECREASED DTR and  SEVERE    MUSCLE WEAKNESS

3. DECREASED HR, RR

4. INCREASED BP

What are Electrolytes?

Electrolytes are substances which have a positive or negative electrical charge when dissolved in water. An adult’s body is approximately 60% water that means almost every fluid and cell in your body contains electrolytes. They will help your body regulate chemical reactions, maintain the balance between fluids inside and outside your cells. Your body will get electrolytes or their components from what you eat and drink. Your kidneys will filter excess electrolytes out of your body and into your urine. Also, you will lose electrolytes when you sweat.

What are the Key Electrolyte Components?

Apparently, there are some key elements that your body needs to maintain normal electrolyte levels.

  • Sodium
    Sodium plays a crucial role in helping your cells maintain the right balance of fluid. Also, it is used to help cells absorb nutrients. It is the most abundant electrolyte ion discovered in the body.
  • Magnesium
    Magnesium will help your cells as they turn nutrients into energy. Need to know that your brain and muscles rely heavily on magnesium to do their own job.
  • Potassium
    Your cells utilize potassium alongside sodium. When a sodium ion enters a cell, then a potassium ion leaves, and vice versa. Also, Potassium is especially critical to your heart function. Too much or too little will be able to cause serious heart issues.
  • Calcium
    Calcium is a key element in your own body, however it does more than only build strong bones and teeth. Also, it is used to control your muscles, transmit signals in your nerves, and manage your heart rhythm and more. Having too much or too little calcium in your own blood will be able to cause a wide range of symptoms across different systems in your body.
  • Chloride
    Chloride is the second-most abundant ion in your body. Also, it is a key part of how your cells maintain their internal and external balance of fluid. Aside from that, it also plays a role in maintaining the body’s natural pH balance.
  • Phosphate
    Phosphate is a phosphorous-based molecule which is a key part of transporting chemical compounds and molecules outside your cells. It will help your cells metabolize nutrients, and it is also a key part of molecules called nucleotides, which are the building blocks which make up your DNA.
  • Bicarbonate
    Not all the carbon dioxide which your body makes gets sent to your lungs for you to breathe it out. Instead, several gets recycled into bicarbonate, which your body utilizes to keep your blood pH levels normal.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.