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Here is the answer key of Student Exploration: Covalent Bonds Gizmo according to StuDocu.
Prior Knowledge Questions
- There are eight markers in a full set, but Flora and Frank each only have seven markers. Flora is missing the red marker, and Frank is missing the blue marker. What can they do so that each has a full set of markers?
Answer: Frank should give the red marker to Flora, and Flora should give the blue marker to Frank.
- Otto and Olivia each have six markers. Otto is missing the purple and green markers, and Olivia is missing the black and brown markers. What can they do so that each has a full set?
Answer: Otto should give the black and brown markers to Olivia, and Olivia should give the purple and green markers to Otto.
- The outermost electrons in each atom are called valence electrons. How many valence electrons does each fluorine atom have?
Answer: 7 valence electrons
- Click Pause. Drag an electron from the left atom to the right atom. Click Play. What happens?
Answer: They equally share the one atom on the new shell that is formed.
- Click Pause, drag an electron from the right atom to the left, and then click Play. What happens now?
Answer: They continue to spiral around both atoms, but now there are two electrons on the shell.
Question: What happens when atoms share electrons?
- Predict: Each hydrogen atom has one valence electron, but it needs two electrons to be stable. How can both hydrogen atoms each achieve a stable configuration?
Answer: Since they both need two to achieve a stable configuration, the remaining electrons can bond to one another so each atom shares them.
- Form a bond: Drag the electrons so that they move around both hydrogen atoms. Click Play to observe them in orbit, and then click Check. You have created a covalent bond. Congratulations, you have completed a molecule of hydrogen! Because the molecule has two atoms, it is a diatomic molecule. Click the camera icon to take a snapshot of your completed molecule. Right click the image, and click Copy Image. Paste the image into the document below and label the image “H2”.
- Draw a diagram: Covalent bonds are shown in Lewis diagrams. In a Lewis diagram, dots represent unshared valence electrons and dashes represent pairs of shared electrons. Hand draw in this space or click here to select Edit to use the drawing tool. Turn on Show Lewis diagram. What is the Lewis diagram for hydrogen, H2?
Answer: H – H
- Form a bond: Now select Fluorine and create a molecule of fluorine, F2. Take a snapshot of this molecule and add it to the document. (Be sure to label each molecule you add.)
What is the Lewis diagram for fluorine, F2?
- Think and discuss: How is the formation of covalent bonds similar to kids sharing markers? How is it different? If possible, discuss your answer with your classmates and teacher.
Answer: The formation of covalent bonds is similar as in, each kid can share the markers without actually owning them, similar to diatomic covalent bonds. Unlike ionic bonds, they aren’t taking or losing electrons, they’re simply sharing them, similar to kids sharing markers. It is different though because a bond is a bond, and a marker is a marker.
Questions: How do atoms share more than one pair of electrons?
- Observe: Like fluorine and most other elements, oxygen atoms are most stable with a full complement of eight valence electrons.
A. How many valence electrons does each oxygen atom have now?
B. How many more electrons does each oxygen atom need to be stable?
- Form a bond: Drag electrons back and forth until the molecule of oxygen (O2) is stable. Click Check to confirm your molecule is stable. Take a snapshot and paste the image into your document (don’t forget to label it “O2”).
- How many pairs of shared electrons are there in a stable molecule of oxygen?
- Draw a diagram: Draw a Lewis diagram of the oxygen molecule in the space below at left. To check your work, turn on Show Lewis diagram. Draw the correct diagram on the right.
- Practice: Create covalent bonds and stable molecules for the remaining substances. Take a snapshot of each completed molecule and add it to your document.
- Count: Review the Lewis diagrams you drew above. Note that each element tends to form a certain number of chemical bonds. This value is the valence of the element.
For each element in the table below, use the Gizmo to find the number of valence electrons and the list the valence based on the Lewis diagram. Then find the sum of these numbers.
|Element||Symbol||# of valence electrons||Valence||Sum|
- Make a rule: If you knew the number of valence electrons in a nonmetal atom, how would you determine the valence of the element? (Hint: Ignore hydrogen for now)
Answer: Ignoring hydrogen, you take the number 8 (full shell) and subtract it by the number of valence electrons to find the valence.
- Analyze: The first shell can hold a maximum of two electrons. How does this explain the valence of hydrogen?
Answer: Hydrogen only has one valence electron since it is in the first group and also has one valence. This makes the sum two, a full octet for hydrogen.
Apply: Selenium has six valence electrons. What is the valence of selenium?
- Think and discuss: The last column of the periodic table contains the noble gases, elements that do not easily form chemical bonds. Why don’t these gases tend to form chemical bonds?
Answer: They are unlikely to form chemical bonds due to the fact that they have little or no tendency to gain or lose electrons, since they have a full outer electron shell.
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